Gender and Internet : Web magazine for Cyber law for women News update for February 17-March 16, 2020

Case against man in Scotland who had alleged to have sent naked videos of himself and contents showcasing sexual acts performed by himself to woman, gets deserted, prosecution comes to an end without the facts being determined and he is allowed to walk free because witnesses for the prosecution failed to depose.
https://www.thesouthernreporter.co.uk/news/crime/case-deserted-against-hawick-51-year-old-accused-sending-woman-videos-himself-performing-sex-act-1887132

Bangalore court rejects bail petition of Nigerian man who had duped 44 women he met on marriage portal
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/bengaluru-nigerian-accused-of-cheating-44-women-denied-bail/articleshow/74296918.cms

Man joins Whatsapp group in India, post data mining, gets number of target female victim and allegedly continues to send sexually harassing contents in Hyderabad, India and gets arrested.
https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/hyderabad/2020/feb/26/tamil-nadu-man-harasses-woman-in-hyderabad-held-2108542.html

US woman ends relationship with a Dubai based Egyptian, sends strong mail against the later’s online abuses including sending her pornographic images of himself, sexually explicit images and texts via messages : resultant, the woman is charged with slander as per the UAE laws and arrested.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/melissa-mcburnie-arrest-uae-strong-language-explicit-messages-us-national-a9367381.html?fbclid=IwAR3d5kgmNJWK0yGKVaL08O96JuO_RCM_xSkieZZxNgGnvFIz-E5tnFE9y9E

Pornhub, world’s biggest porn site fails several victims of rape, revenge porn and nonconsensual porn in its practice of due diligence. Activists and stakeholders point out that thousands of rape, sexual assault videos are consumed over this platform.
https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2020/mar/09/worlds-biggest-porn-site-under-fire-over-videos-pornhub?CMP=share_btn_fb&fbclid=IwAR0llaaHI65m5K9zECr3XYAmRD_ZHzUFyM1YY8WOT6-gAs9JcFWwPlYxFyI

Dating apps are used by men to rob, sexually assault women in real life in the US
https://www.wusa9.com/article/news/local/maryland/masked-men-posing-as-women-on-dating-apps-to-assault-victims/65-32860767-6a58-4220-ad84-bbe8d42d934b

3 women get prison sentences and order for hefty payment for live streaming of child abuse in lieu of money from regional trial court in Lapu Lapu in Philippines.
https://cebudailynews.inquirer.net/289203/3-mothers-from-lapu-lapu-city-plead-guilty-to-online-trafficking-charges

Liabilities of WhatsApp group admins: A critical legal analysis from Indian legal perspectives by Dr.Debarati Halder

picture courtesy : Internet

Over the years we have witnessed gradual development of internet and digital communication technology and rapid over flow of users of the same who may or may not know the digital socio-legal culture. This internet and digital communication technology that I have mentioned here, primary includes WhatsApp. When this platform started becoming popular in India since 2014-15 onwards, it also became popular platform to form opinions, disseminate news including fake news, harassing remarks for group members and other individuals who may not be group members but may be known to one or other group members. Soon Indian users could get connected with users from other jurisdictions through WhatsApp and the groups formed on the basis of WhatsApp became better connected than networks of people connected on Offline. Consider groups like law teachers’ groups, or groups formed on the basis of common interest like terrace gardeners, animal lovers, theological groups, chartered public vehicle commuters’ groups, health service providers groups etc.: members did not necessarily stay in the same locality, did not work in the same organization or may not speak the same vernacular language. But what bonded them was their common interest. This was some thing more popular than Facebook which was ruling internet during 2012-18 era. Slowly WhatsApp became more popular with specific service people like the IPS or IAS association (non official groups) and judicial officers’ groups. The popularity grew because individuals could actually control who would view their opinion and images that may have been ‘consensually’ shared by the members. It must not be however forgotten that WhatsApp has also notoriously become a platform for several online crimes including crimes against State, against individuals, cybercrimes against women[1] and children,[2] economic crimes,[3] cyber terrorism[4] etc.

Understanding stronger confidentiality setup of WhatsApp, soon workplaces and schools also started their own WhatsApp groups. Presently almost all organizations, schools and educational institutes have their respective division /unit/team-based WhatsApp groups. Some of these groups are moderated and monitored by senior members of the organization or the HR department member or the creator of the group or teachers (in case they are the creators/members of the said groups). The bright side of the story is, people can get the necessary information in their hand phones (which may include WhatsApp services) and they may not necessarily look into their mails unless it is for immediate verification necessity.  Mails now have become more official and WhatsApp groups are more personal. The negative aspect is quick circulation of offensive, harassing and unwanted contents.

Here comes the question of liabilities of three groups especially regarding creation, publication and circulation of offensive and unwanted contents. These liabilities may vary according to the age of the creators/publishers/circulators and position of the creators/publishers/circulators. ‘Position’ here necessarily means the website who is hosting the communication, the admin who is moderating or who may have created the group and general members who may be the creators/publishers/circulators of the content.  This three groups are as follows:

Let me first start with the website. WhatsApp as the web platform of the communications or Facebook as the parent company facilitating WhatsApp, may seek their excuse from any legal tangle in case of creation, circulation, publication of any offensive contents by virtue of Due Diligence clause which they exercise in almost cases of creation/circulation/publication of contents which are offensive. For this purpose, we need to understand the Indian version of Due Diligence law which can be found in S.79 of the Information Technology Act, 2000(amended in2008); the first two subclauses address the points which may be used by the websites. To summaries:

Websites or intermediaries who provide services including web hosting services, search engines etc (as per S.(w) of the Information technology Act, 2000(amended in 2008), may not be liable for any third-party activities carried out on their web platforms if such activity (which includes creation/publication/circulation etc. of any offensive, harassing etc. contents) is not initiated by the website, the website dies not select the receiver of the transmission and the website does not select or modify the information contained in the transmission. The website or the intermediary will also be excused from the third party liability in case the same has practiced due diligence as per the laws, rules and guidance as has been mandated by the Indian government. These Rules are mentioned in Information Technology (Intermediaries guidelines) Rules, 2011, which have further been suggested for amendment. [5] As such, these Rules include the following responsibilities of the intermediary or the web platform:

  • Publishing of Rules, regulations, privacy policies and user agreements which will clearly make the user understand that posting/transmission of/uploading/modification  etc of contents which may be grossly harmful, harassing, blasphemous, defamatory, obscene, pornographic, paedophilic, libellous, invasive of another’s privacy, hateful, or racially, ethnically objectionable, disparaging, relating or encouraging money laundering or gambling, or otherwise unlawful in any manner whatever;  harm minors in any way;  infringes any patent, trademark, copyright or other proprietary rights;  violates any law for the time being in force;  deceives or misleads the addressee about the origin of such messages or communicates any information which is grossly offensive or menacing in nature; impersonates another person;  contains software viruses or any other computer code, files or programs designed to interrupt, destroy or limit the functionality of any computer resource; threatens the unity, integrity, defence, security or sovereignty of India, friendly relations with foreign states, or public order, or causes incitement to the commission of any cognisable offence or prevents investigation of any offence or is insulting any other nation. threatens public health or safety; promotion of cigarettes or any other tobacco products or consumption of intoxicant including alcohol and Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS) & like products that enable nicotine delivery except for the purpose & in the manner and to the extent, as may be approved under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules made thereunder; (k) threatens critical information infrastructure.
  • Provide all support to the criminal justice machinery to disclose incidences of cyber security, the identity and all other relevant details of the harasser/originator of the offensive content.
  • Not to host/transmit/publish etc any information which the website management known to be illegal and offensive.
  • Provide periodic update on the policy of the web company related to users liabilities, rights and duties etc.
  • Take down reported content within considerable time of maximum 24 hours (as the draft Intermediary Guidelines (Amendment) Rules, 2018 indicates). [6]

In short, the web companies, intermediaries may not be directly liable for WhatsApp mess-ups that may be done by the individual users.

The second party which may attract the liability for publication/creation/circulation of any offensive content on the platform is the group admin. Now, let us first understand who are called as ‘group admins’:  WhatsApp provides certain features especially for group chats and this includes monitoring of the group by designated persons who are known as admins. Admins may not necessarily be the creators of the group. However, the latter may always remain as admin in spite of creation of multiple admins by him/her. Admins may have the power and authority to include and exclude members, block members, restrict the publication of comments[7] and create group policies which may be used to restrict a particular member/s in case of violation of the same.  Indian courts have in numbers of occasion, held that group admins may not be held liable for the activities of the members of the group in case the said admin had shown due diligence to restrict publication/circulation/creation of offensive comments.[8] This due diligence is however derived from the understanding of criminal law sanctions mixed with tortuous liabilities. For example, consider the followings:

  • If the group admin has not been made group admin consensually and he does not know the subject of discussion of the group, he may have a very narrow defence of being misled  by other admins/creator who forced him to join them in criminal activities like creation/publication/circulation of offensive contents which violate the existing laws of the Land.
  • If the group admin himself had not created/circulated any offensive content and had warned any user for not sharing/posting etc any content which is offensive, he may not be made liable for creating/sharing contents which may be offensive under any law if any member had even for some time (when the admin was not expected to watch/monitor the group) had posted/circulated some offensive content. But in such case, if the content falls in the category of child sexual abuse material which may be categorised under S.67B of the Information Technology Act, 2000(amended in 2008) or POCSO Act, the admin may not avail any excuse.
  • In case the group admin is a child, the question becomes tricky. If the group is specifically made by minors, the police, the prosecution and the court have to see who may have provided the basic assistance in accessing the web platform and the contents (including the offensive contents). Necessarily in such cases, courts may have to use the principles of vicarious liability because a child may not be eligible to own a SIM card unless an adult provides him the same. Here, the basic understandings of contract laws and age of maturity may be applied.[9] Now, let us see the case of the WhatsApp group of students of an elite school in Mumbai where minor students were discussing about child sexual abuse of their own female classmates:[10] parents may be made vicariously liable in such case, which actually did not take place, may be because here the parents of the accused children themselves alerted the school and restricted further violation of rights of those children who were targeted for the sexual fantasy of the adolescent boys. But here one needs to check whether personal information including images of the ‘victim children’ were disseminated unauthorizedly or not, or whether it was restricted only to the use of names. In both cases POCSO Act may be applied (in the latter case , Ss.11 (sexual harassment), 13(use of children for pornographic purposes) and S.14 (punishment for using children for pornographic purposes) of the POCSO Act may be narrowly applied.

However, if the group admin/s knowingly allow creation/circulation /publication of posts which may be offensive in nature, they may not get any excuse from the clutches law specifically made to punish the commitment of such acts like creation/circulation/dissemination of obscene images (S.67), sexually explicit contents (S.67A), voyeurism and sharing non-consensual images (S.66E of the Information Technology Act, 2000(amended in 2008) and S.354C of the Indian Penal Code, defamation (S.499, 500 Indian Penal Code), sharing information which has been restricted as seditious material under S.124A IPC or any other law which may restrict freedom of speech in the line of Article 19(2) of the Constitution of India, all of which may be read together with Ss.107 and 108 of the Indian Penal Code and S.84B of the Information Technology Act, 2000(amended din 2008)( laws related to abetment of offence ).

            Coming to the liability of the third group of users of WhatsApp, it may be seen that if a user/user create/publish/circulate any content which is offensive in nature, they may be liable as per the respective legal sanctions. However, the act of forwarding any content has also been considered as within the scope of defamation laws (under S.499/500 IPC ) or in case of online harassment of women and children, within the meaning of different kinds of offences recognised by law including voyeurism, stalking, non-consensual image sharing, indecent representation of women, child sexual abuse, grooming etc.

But the question larks on the issue of machine and artificial intelligence, which may make the admins responsible in case they may not be aware about the usage. For example, if the admin is a new user or not accustomed with the privacy and security features of WhatsApp, he may not be able to restrict certain ‘posts’ which may be published because of the machine intelligence: this may include certain words which the phone may suggest presuming the first few alphabets. He may neither be able to restrict a member which may have been suggested by the computer system of the platform and the device. Further, he might also not be able to remove certain posts which may have surfaced in the group due to resharing or forwarding by other members. Here, the group admin’s liability must be seen exclusively. Websites or intermediaries however would not be liable by virtue of the proviso clause of Rule 3 of the  Intermediary Guidelines Rules, 2011 (and also Amended draft version of 2018), which says  “……………….the following actions by an intermediary shall not amount to hosting, publishing, editing or storing of any such information as specified in subrule(2): (a) temporary or transient or intermediate storage of information automatically within the computer resource as an intrinsic feature of such computer resource, involving no exercise of any human editorial control, for onward transmission or communication to another computer resource; (b) removal of access to any information, data or communication link by an intermediary after such information, data or communication link comes to the actual knowledge of a person authorised by the intermediary pursuant to any order or direction as per the provisions of the Act.”           

As may be understood from the above, WhatsApp group admins therefore may not always claim to be immuned especially when they were aware of the group activities, they had not practiced due diligence from their side and they had published or forwarded offensive contents themselves for the wider circulation of the same.    


*Prof(Dr)Debarati Halder, LL.B.,  M.L., Ph.D(Law)(NLSIU) is the Managing Director (Hon) of Centre for Cyber Victim Counselling (www.cybervictims.org) .  She can be reached @debaratihalder@gmail.com

[1] See Halder D., & Jaishankar, K (2016.) Cyber crimes against women in India.

New Delhi: SAGE Publications. ISBN: 9789385985775 for understanding types of cyber crimes against women and laws.

[2] See Halder, D. (2018). Child Sexual Abuse and Protection Laws in India. New

Delhi: SAGE Publications. ISBN: 9789352806843, Halder D., & Jaishankar K. (2014). Patterns of Sexual Victimization of Children and Women in the Multipurpose Social Networking Sites. In C. Marcum and G. Higgins (Eds.), Social Networking as a Criminal Enterprise (pp. 129-143). Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group. ISBN 978-1-466-589797 for more understanding on types of cyber crimes against children.

[3] See for example, Kurowski, S., (2014). Using a whatsapp vulnerability for profiling individuals. In: Hühnlein, D. & Roßnagel, H. (Hrsg.), Open Identity Summit 2014. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.. (S. 140-146). Available @ https://dl.gi.de/handle/20.500.12116/2633 Accesed on 21.01.2020

[4] See for example, Broadhurst, Roderic and Woodford-Smith, Hannah and Maxim, Donald and Sabol, Bianca and Orlando, Stephanie and Chapman-Schmidt, Ben and Alazab, Mamoun, Cyber Terrorism: Research Review: Research Report of the Australian National University Cybercrime Observatory for the Korean Institute of Criminology (June 30, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2984101 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2984101 Accessed on 20.01.2020

[5] By way of Intermediary Guidelines (Amendment) Rules, 2018

[6] The Intermediary Guidelines (Amendment) Rules, 2018 also mentions that if the intermediary has more than 50 fifty lakh users in India or is in the list of intermediaries specifically notified by the government of India, it shall:

(i) be a company incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 or the Companies Act,2013;

(ii) have a permanent registered office in India with physical address; and

(iii) Appoint in India, a nodal person of contact and alternate senior designated

functionary, for 24×7 coordination with law enforcement agencies and officers to

ensure compliance to their orders/requisitions made in accordance with provisions

[7] For more understanding, see https://faq.whatsapp.com/en/android/26000118/?category=5245251 Accessed on 12.01.2020

[8] For example, see Ashish Bhalla vs Suresh Chawdhary & others, 2016. Accessed from http://delhihighcourt.nic.in/dhcqrydisp_o.asp?pn=242183&yr=2016 on 21.01.2020

[9] For understanding this, we need to see S.11 of the Indian Contract Act, which says minors, persons of unsound mind and persons disqualified by law may not be able to enter into any agreement.

[10] See India Today Webdesk. Schoolboys at posh Mumbai school talk about raping classmates, ‘gang bang’ in horrific WhatsApp chats. Available @https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/mumbai-ib-school-students-whatsapp-chat-horror-1629343-2019-12-18 . Accessed on 21.01.2020

Gender and Internet : Web magazine for Cyber law for women News update for February 10-February 16, 2020

picture curtsy : Internet

Women victims of sextortion, fake profiles, non consensual porn in Nepal suffer silently as law and the police fail to nab offenders sitting in different jurisdictions.
https://www.nepalitimes.com/banner/crossborder-cybercrime-and-punishment/

2020 valentines week saw romance scammers victimizing vulnerable older single women, war widows and heart broken widowers in Australia
https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8001801/Love-scammers-swindle-MILLIONS-vulnerable-women-pretending-soldiers-widowers.html

Mexican woman violated and virtually abused even aftr hear death when news media portals share images and videos of her unskinned mutilated body over digital platform. Agitated stakeholders blame the ill drafted laws which failed to prevent circulation of objectionable of video of women by web portals.
https://www.headlinesoftoday.com/news/world-news/mexico-in-outrage-as-picture-of-mutilated-body-of-a-murdered-woman-published.html

Man and his female acquaintance arrested for blackmailing businessman in Pakistan for his objectionable private videos that were alleged to have been deceitfully captured by two women from the same gang.
https://www.dawn.com/news/1534111/man-woman-arrested-for-blackmail

Gender and Internet : Web magazine for Cyber law for women News update for January 27th-February 9, 2020

In a first, Madras High Court refuses to quash a case against Airtel as a service provider and directs the trial court to conduct trial for finding out liability of the service provider for continuous sending of unwanted messages of sexual nature to an Airtel subscriber.
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/obscene-messages-airtel-to-face-trial-as-hc-refuses-to-quash-case/articleshow/73944935.cms

Basildon Crown Court, UK awards 32 months jail sentence to man who hacked into iCloud and leaked private images of women and girls online. The prison sentence is awarded in relation to 12 computer misuse offences, nine counts of voyeurism and five counts of taking indecent images of children.
https://digit.fyi/suffolk-man-jailed-for-hacking-icloud-and-sharing-indecent-images-online/

Saudi divorced woman arrested for ‘indecent’ posts on social media which includes encouraging women to leave their husband when certain demands are not fulfilled, hosting matchmaking, showcasing women dancing and smoking in public. The activities have been considered as criminal activities as per Saudi laws.
https://stepfeed.com/saudi-woman-arrested-for-posting-illicit-content-on-snapchat-8974

Two men from a reputed family in West Bengal target 182 women by way of stalking, hacking, voyeurism etc. Police arrests the offenders under several provisions of Indian Penal Code, Information Technology Act
https://news.abplive.com/tv-show/sansani/kolkata-men-arrested-for-blackmailing-182-women-sansani-1155439


Woman CEO receives constant vulgar messages from fake email ids. Accused arrested for cyber stalking in India
https://www.deccanchronicle.com/nation/current-affairs/080220/saree-designer-cyberstalks-woman-ceo-arrested.html

Gender and Internet : Web magazine for Cyber law for women News update for January 20th-26th January, 2020

German court rules that Facebook has further violated the data protection law primarily for default setups which allow location tracking and sharing the link of the users’ profiles with the search engines. Women and children face more privacy related threats due to such setups.
https://www.politico.eu/article/facebook-violates-data-protection-law-german-court-says/?fbclid=IwAR1nEqmIS-JrHeYvPXmtY3DUh-Xy1sWQ_sTwUoKuOzN5WqB0hMRT1mEa93k

Indian women politicians are being harassed by Troll armies and deep fake porn on Twitter.
https://amp.cnn.com/cnn/2020/01/22/india/india-women-politicians-trolling-amnesty-asequals-intl/index.html?__twitter_impression=true&fbclid=IwAR3nDIPebX-UsVV99pl3jnIU6dJuuN6KphxaZfldfk2oh2NhQ8DdQhACDZ4

Pune man hacked into the social media profile of teen girl to create fake account and spread obscene messages impostering the victim. The accused gets arrested under provisions of Indian Penal Code and Information Technology Act, 2000(amended in 2008).
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/man-creates-teens-fake-profile-online-shares-her-morphed-pics/articleshow/73562885.cms

Video of young female college students drinking alcohol in a house party in Tamil Nadu becomes viral and the women attract moral policing and trolling on social media : the girls are suspended from the college. Stakeholders caution that lack of laws for addressing trolling, cyber shaming women may ruin reputation and lives of women in India
https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/tamil-nadu/2020/jan/26/error-404-your-profile-is-now-morally-webbed-2094622.html

stakeholders raise concern faster online grooming of girls whereby young girls are made to expose for pedophiles within minutes. Young girls are falling victims of child sexual abuse by way of self generated images especially in the Live Streaming websites for more ‘likes’for their images.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/girl-grooming-child-sex-abuse-livestreaming-internet-watch-a9300946.html?fbclid=IwAR2CdfGWM_-6zQUdZZ55eyUEgeIkJxcF2b76-7rrMICz2oJV-1n9g-4K0FM

Gender and Internet : Web magazine for Cyber law for women News update for January 7th-19th, 2020

Canadian court awards sentence for payment of compensation for reputation damage by woman who allegedly destroyed ex boyfriend’s reputation by posting about the latter on Instagram allegedly describing him as alcoholic cheater and containing sexually transmitted disease.
https://www.sacbee.com/news/nation-world/world/article238980818.html?fbclid=IwAR2c-8sFVYhAgYZTQf5YJXb6Qr01tRMBvnSBWciXO4r58KVqvRKtKd_XKdE

Thousands of women’s images are illegally shared from their Tinder accounts possibly for major online sexual assaults and catphishing.
https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/10768285/tinder-pics-stolen-cyber-crime-fake-profiles-catfishing/

Scottish police buys new devices exclusively for data mining for the purpose of crime investigation
https://au.lifestyle.yahoo.com/2020-01-16-scottish-police-device-data-mining-password.html

BTech student from India sends friends request to woman only to collect personal photographs from her social media website and morphed the same for creating nude images. Accused arrested when mother of the victim complained to the police for sharing profiles containing nude images of the victim.
https://www.thehansindia.com/telangana/hyderabad-btech-student-held-for-sharing-morphed-photos-of-women-online-598041

Gender and Internet : Web magazine for Cyber law for women News update for January 1st-6th, 2020

Model tries to raise donation for Australian Bush fire by promising to share her nude pictures to those who would donate some money. But things do not turn up as expected, her nude pictures gets unauthoirsedly and freely distributed and her Instagram account gets deactivated allegedly because she has violated the policy norms.
https://indianexpress.com/article/trending/trending-globally/model-raises-100000-for-australian-bushfire-victims-by-sending-nudes-for-donations-6201996/

US judge awards huge damages to women victims against a specific porn website. The victims did not know that their images which were made in the name of modeling, were uploaded in the porn sites.
https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2020/jan/03/girlsdoporn-site-pay-127m-women-didnt-know-videos-posted?CMP=share_btn_fb&fbclid=IwAR0jryZJ6GcQTidjsmARU46_WLRCZjnufAZlyaHuJV9WZc63VQBmWjDdHd4

Fresh Cambridge Analytica case shows more data breach
https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2020/jan/04/cambridge-analytica-data-leak-global-election-manipulation?CMP=share_btn_fb&fbclid=IwAR3IztXEHqQi3epuA5egPIzPezFt6rEJeUH0ty15GkJU4-L-mIT1Ev4eL5w

Colleges are using smart phones of students for surveillance purposes in the US
https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/12/24/colleges-are-turning-students-phones-into-surveillance-machines-tracking-locations-hundreds-thousands/?fbclid=IwAR0e-EQerbXhrek_imW0wue8a12R3XWbZJRCGDKjmFqIcDSir7tvxJY9Nj0

Gender and Internet : Web magazine for Cyber law for women News update for December 23-31, 2019

Mentally challenged woman is forced to perform marriage with another mentally challenged man in public for content making by TikTok users. No one arrested as police reported that no one has made any complaint.
https://www.indiatoday.in/crime/story/tiktok-video-mentally-challenged-man-woman-forced-to-marry-1631769-2019-12-26?fbclid=IwAR2-QPjeR4Xjari118GQzrSJjyRiCmui9haPeAYIb2J_esulBwRTD4dSH2U

US courts to consider whether revenge porn laws are violative of 1st Amendment Rights
https://www.washingtonpost.com/nation/2019/12/26/is-revenge-porn-protected-speech-supreme-court-may-soon-weigh/?fbclid=IwAR1PyhKigsoEoNg-q2vTk5jLLEA9ps5RauEcFKh2KIPGsLTRD37MNxuRN3o

Man arrested for creating fake profile of women to offer online sex services in Mumbai, India
https://www.mid-day.com/articles/mumbai-crime-man-arrested-for-operating-fake-facebook-profiles-of-women/22357159

Singapore is making doxxing a criminal offence from January, 2020
https://www.theonlinecitizen.com/2019/12/28/doxxing-to-be-criminalised-from-1-jan-2020-along-with-other-new-offences-via-amendments-to-penal-code-and-other-legislation/

Man arrested in Hyderabad, India for sextortion of minor girl whom he contacted while playing PUBG
https://telanganatoday.com/man-arrested-in-hyderabad-for-blackmailing-minor-girl

Gender and Internet : Web magazine for Cyber law for women News update for December 1-22nd 2019

Teen boys are discussing about gang rape and fantasizing about raping their own classmates over Whats App chats in Mumbai
https://www.indiatoday.in/india/story/mumbai-ib-school-students-whatsapp-chat-horror-1629343-2019-12-18

Teacher is accused of sexting to students: it is unfortunate to note how teacher -student relationships are turning negative in every way
https://www.14news.com/2019/12/18/middle-school-teacher-former-miss-ky-pleads-guilty-sexting-student/?fbclid=IwAR0zN2-yq-xlLXkrfbeFzKdpYY0S-mGKxkDKl6m9HwNub8N7kftsDYe-KVk

There is no respite for women who are victimized due to card fraud as police stations still refuse to accept the concept of Zero FIR and most police stations are ill equipped to handle cyber crime cases.
https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/bengaluru/it-took-3-days-and-3-police-stations-for-woman-to-file-plaint/articleshow/72420404.cms

Cyber flashing or sending unsolicited pictures of private parts to random recipients, especially women and girls is becoming a matter of concern for law makers and criminal justice machinery in the UK
https://www.thetimes.co.uk/magazine/style/why-the-uk-needs-to-take-cyber-flashing-seriously-73c0r02f9

Philippine woman arrested for offering girls from the age group of 5-15, including her own nieces for online sexual solicitation. She faces arrest on the grounds of violation of Republic Acts No. 9208 (human trafficking), 10175 (cybercrime), and 9775 (child pornography).
https://www.rappler.com/nation/246689-aunt-arrested-offering-nieces-online-sex-south-cotabato

Man faces arrest for pushing and taking pictures of woman co passenger without consent in Kolkata metro station in India.
https://www.telegraphindia.com/states/west-bengal/metro-molester-dragged-to-cops/cid/1724135

Gender and Internet : Web Magazine for Cyber Law for Women News Update for November 26-30, 2019

Thanks to the relaxed policy regarding domain name change : Porn sites are back in India despite “paper tiger” ban on 857 website ban by Government of India
https://dailystockdish.com/porn-sites-make-a-return-in-india-by-tweaking-domain-name/

Singapore parliament brings in new law to provide slap strict sentences for cyber flashing, voyeurism, distribution non consensual porn and revenge porn contents. But cyber violence against women continue to sky rocket in Singapore.
https://dailytimes.com.pk/507796/pervasive-digital-sexual-violence-against-women-skyrockets-in-singapore/

Family in Utah, Canada gets tormented by harasser from Hawaii who shared online posts suggesting the victim family offers all types of services including prostitution.
https://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-50567077